For example, in Nordic countries, an offense by a person under 15 years of age is considered mostly a symptom of problems in child's development. 14 for all crimes under the general provisions of the Criminal Code; special provisions may apply for some crimes up to the age 21. Grunnvilkår for straffansvar - Lovdata", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Age_of_criminal_responsibility_in_Europe&oldid=974853283, CS1 Norwegian Bokmål-language sources (nb), Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 25 August 2020, at 11:50. [Criminal Code, Article 19; Lei Tutelar Educativa 1999 (Guardianship and Education Law), Articles 1 and 4], unsuitable for being held accountable for their criminal offence, "Minimum Ages of Criminal Responsibility in Europe | CRIN", s. 50 Children and Young Persons Act 1933, Criminal Justice and Licensing (Scotland) Act 2010, http://www.youthpolicy.org/wp-content/uploads/library/1999_Criminal_Code_Andorra_Cat.pdf, "Justice ministry rejects UNICEF criticism of new criminal code provisions on youthful offenders", http://www.citizensinformation.ie/en/justice/children_and_young_offenders/children_and_the_criminal_justice_system_in_ireland.html, http://www.hidaa.gov.al/english/laws/penal%20code.pdf, https://www.ris.bka.gv.at/GeltendeFassung.wxe?Abfrage=Bundesnormen&Gesetzesnummer=10002825, http://www.iuscomp.org/gla/statutes/StGB.htm#19, "Lov om straff (straffeloven) - Kapittel 3. Minimum age of criminal responsibility is 12. At the state level, 33 states set no minimum age of criminal responsibility. ]", "Minimum Ages of Criminal Responsibility in Europe | CRIN", "Rige Ley donde se reduce la edad de imputabilidad de los menores", "Bolivia – Edad de responsabilidad penal ordinaria es desde los 18 años – JORNADA", Estatuto da Criança e do Adolescente (pt), "Progress of Nations 1997 Special Protections – Progress and Disparity", "EL NUEVO SISTEMA DE JUSTICIA PENAL PARA ADOLESCENTES", "Ministro de Justicia descarta rebaja en edad de responsabilidad penal adolescente", "La mayoría de los países de América latina ya tiene un régimen penal juvenil", "Klaus podpisem stvrdil trestní odpovědnost i legální sex od 15 let", "Adolescentes infractores, en la mira de Código Penal", "Minimum Ages of Criminal Responsibility in Africa | CRIN", "Justice ministry rejects UNICEF criticism of new criminal code provisions on youthful offenders", "Iran Human Rights Documentation Center – Criminal Responsibility of Children in the Islamic Republic of Iran's New Penal Code", "Iran urged to increase age of criminal responsibility for children", "Children and the criminal justice system", "UNICEF Malaysia – Child Protection – Justice for Children", "Minimum Ages of Criminal Responsibility in Asia", "Decreto por el que se expide la Ley Nacional del Sistema Integral de Justicia Penal para Adolescentes (art. The government has said it had no plans to raise the age of criminal responsibility. The two males ran away, police said, but were found a short time later with three others -- who are now all being investigated. Currently, minors under the age of 14 do not bear any criminal responsibility in China. Ages of criminal responsibility by country. In fact, capacity was a necessary element of the state's case. "Persons can be held criminally responsible for all offences committed after they have reached the age of 16, and for intentional killing from the age of 13, and for other specifically named offences from the age of 14. After reaching the initial age, there may be levels of responsibility dictated by age and the type of offense committed. Three 14-year-old boys and two 12-year-old boys are being investigated after locals found a woman surrounded by two males in Mülheim, near Cologne, Essen Police said in a statement.

A young adult between 18 and 21 years may still be sentenced by juvenile justice if considered mentally immature.

[13][14] In England and Wales and Northern Ireland the age of responsibility is 10 years, and in the Netherlands and Canada the age of responsibility is 12 years. Children's Attitudes Towards the Minimum Age of Criminal Responsibility", "Youth justice: Raising the age of criminal responsibility", "The Age of Criminal Responsibility (Scotland) Act 2019 (Commencement No. England, Wales and Northern Ireland has the lowest age of criminal responsibility in Europe, which currently stands at 10 years old. Is the principle of the criminal responsibility of minors based on classical legal reasoning (imputability/guilt) or is it based more on a criminological concept of “criminal capacity"? If they choose to detain them at a police station, they can be detained for a maximum of 4 hours. If the defendant did not understand the difference between right and wrong, it may not be considered appropriate to treat such a person as culpable. Wendt says those under 14 should not necessarily be incarcerated, but should be punished by being barred from specific places or people, or be registered to a youth worker whom they need to check in with on a regular basis. [citation needed], Some jurisdictions do not have a set fixed minimum age, but leave discretion to prosecutors to argue or the judges to rule on whether the child or adolescent ("juvenile") defendant understood that what was being done was wrong. Hence, children are deemed incapable of committing some sexual or other acts requiring abilities of a more mature quality. Behavior of a more antisocial nature can be stigmatized in a more positive way to show society's disapproval through the use of the word criminal. In 2007 the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) said it was not. First-time criminals under the age of 18 doing petty crimes usually get no punishment and get released with only a warning. In Hong Kong, the minimum age is 10. [11] Hence, no matter what the child may have done, there cannot be a criminal prosecution. Children have not had experience of life, nor do they have the same mental and intellectual capacities as adults. The terminology regarding such a defense varies by jurisdiction and sphere. "Implicit theories of criminal responsibility: Decision making and the insanity defense." Usually persons aged 10–11 will only be imprisoned in very serious cases, such as murder.

On the other hand, the Court may choose to apply juvenile measures for perpetrators above the age of 17 but below the age of 18, if "the circumstances of the case and the mental state of development of the perpetrator, his characteristics and personal situation warrant it." However, although no criminal liability is inferred, other aspects of law may be applied.

If convicted in a juvenile court, the offender is found "responsible" for their actions as opposed to "guilty" of a criminal offense. 18 is the standard age of criminal liability in Peru. The woman was allegedly raped in this park in Mülheim, Germany. The age of criminal responsibility in Europe refers to the age below which an individual is considered to be unsuitable for being held accountable for their criminal offence, also known as "defense of infancy" in the US. 12 in Scotland. Offenders aged 14 to 18 years qualify for reduction of sentence under section 18 of the Criminal Code. Sometimes, in some jurisdictions (such as the United States of America), a minor may be tried as an adult. [Penal Code, Article 82. Indeed, given the different speeds at which people may develop both physically and intellectually, any form of explicit age limit may be arbitrary and irrational.

The "age of criminal responsibility" is used by most European countries, the UK, Australia, New Zealand and other Commonwealth of Nations countries. A child under the age of seven was presumed incapable of committing a crime. Alternatively, the lack of real fault in the offender can be recognized by rulings that dispense mitigated criminal sentences or address more practical matters of parental responsibility by adjusting the rights of parents to unsupervised custody, or by separate criminal proceedings against the parents for breach of their duties as parents.

incapable of wrong) and exclude liability for all acts and omissions that would otherwise have been criminal up to a specified age. [Note: unofficial translation.

Other measures applied for ages 12–13. [citation needed], The policy of treating minors as incapable of committing crimes does not necessarily reflect modern sensibilities. If the police notices someone under the age of 15 doing criminal acts, the police can decide to have obligatory meetings with the teen/child and the parents. In legal terms, it is referred to as a defence/defense of infancy, which is a form of defense known as an excuse so that defendants falling within the definition of an "infant" are excluded from criminal liability for their actions, if at the relevant time, they had not reached an age of criminal responsibility. However, minors from 16–17 years old at the moment of the crime may be subject to 6 to 10 years in prison in case of homicide, feminicide, extortion, vandalism, rape or being member of a criminal gang. All five suspects are Bulgarian, police added. Even though legal procedures and punishment are different for offenders who are under 18, all offenders who are 12 or older may be sentenced to as much as 15 years of incarceration. Currently, the only other European countries with a minimum age of criminal responsibility lower than 14 are France (13 years of age), Poland (13 years of age), Turkey (12 years of age), the Netherlands (12 years of age) and Switzerland (ten years of age).

Hence, some states have a policy of doli incapax (i.e.

The age of criminal responsibility in England and Wales is 10 years old. The most common age of criminal responsibility in Europe is 14. The prosecution could overcome the presumption by proving that the child understood what they were doing and it was wrong.

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For example, in Nordic countries, an offense by a person under 15 years of age is considered mostly a symptom of problems in child's development. 14 for all crimes under the general provisions of the Criminal Code; special provisions may apply for some crimes up to the age 21. Grunnvilkår for straffansvar - Lovdata", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Age_of_criminal_responsibility_in_Europe&oldid=974853283, CS1 Norwegian Bokmål-language sources (nb), Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 25 August 2020, at 11:50. [Criminal Code, Article 19; Lei Tutelar Educativa 1999 (Guardianship and Education Law), Articles 1 and 4], unsuitable for being held accountable for their criminal offence, "Minimum Ages of Criminal Responsibility in Europe | CRIN", s. 50 Children and Young Persons Act 1933, Criminal Justice and Licensing (Scotland) Act 2010, http://www.youthpolicy.org/wp-content/uploads/library/1999_Criminal_Code_Andorra_Cat.pdf, "Justice ministry rejects UNICEF criticism of new criminal code provisions on youthful offenders", http://www.citizensinformation.ie/en/justice/children_and_young_offenders/children_and_the_criminal_justice_system_in_ireland.html, http://www.hidaa.gov.al/english/laws/penal%20code.pdf, https://www.ris.bka.gv.at/GeltendeFassung.wxe?Abfrage=Bundesnormen&Gesetzesnummer=10002825, http://www.iuscomp.org/gla/statutes/StGB.htm#19, "Lov om straff (straffeloven) - Kapittel 3. Minimum age of criminal responsibility is 12. At the state level, 33 states set no minimum age of criminal responsibility. ]", "Minimum Ages of Criminal Responsibility in Europe | CRIN", "Rige Ley donde se reduce la edad de imputabilidad de los menores", "Bolivia – Edad de responsabilidad penal ordinaria es desde los 18 años – JORNADA", Estatuto da Criança e do Adolescente (pt), "Progress of Nations 1997 Special Protections – Progress and Disparity", "EL NUEVO SISTEMA DE JUSTICIA PENAL PARA ADOLESCENTES", "Ministro de Justicia descarta rebaja en edad de responsabilidad penal adolescente", "La mayoría de los países de América latina ya tiene un régimen penal juvenil", "Klaus podpisem stvrdil trestní odpovědnost i legální sex od 15 let", "Adolescentes infractores, en la mira de Código Penal", "Minimum Ages of Criminal Responsibility in Africa | CRIN", "Justice ministry rejects UNICEF criticism of new criminal code provisions on youthful offenders", "Iran Human Rights Documentation Center – Criminal Responsibility of Children in the Islamic Republic of Iran's New Penal Code", "Iran urged to increase age of criminal responsibility for children", "Children and the criminal justice system", "UNICEF Malaysia – Child Protection – Justice for Children", "Minimum Ages of Criminal Responsibility in Asia", "Decreto por el que se expide la Ley Nacional del Sistema Integral de Justicia Penal para Adolescentes (art. The government has said it had no plans to raise the age of criminal responsibility. The two males ran away, police said, but were found a short time later with three others -- who are now all being investigated. Currently, minors under the age of 14 do not bear any criminal responsibility in China. Ages of criminal responsibility by country. In fact, capacity was a necessary element of the state's case. "Persons can be held criminally responsible for all offences committed after they have reached the age of 16, and for intentional killing from the age of 13, and for other specifically named offences from the age of 14. After reaching the initial age, there may be levels of responsibility dictated by age and the type of offense committed. Three 14-year-old boys and two 12-year-old boys are being investigated after locals found a woman surrounded by two males in Mülheim, near Cologne, Essen Police said in a statement.

A young adult between 18 and 21 years may still be sentenced by juvenile justice if considered mentally immature.

[13][14] In England and Wales and Northern Ireland the age of responsibility is 10 years, and in the Netherlands and Canada the age of responsibility is 12 years. Children's Attitudes Towards the Minimum Age of Criminal Responsibility", "Youth justice: Raising the age of criminal responsibility", "The Age of Criminal Responsibility (Scotland) Act 2019 (Commencement No. England, Wales and Northern Ireland has the lowest age of criminal responsibility in Europe, which currently stands at 10 years old. Is the principle of the criminal responsibility of minors based on classical legal reasoning (imputability/guilt) or is it based more on a criminological concept of “criminal capacity"? If they choose to detain them at a police station, they can be detained for a maximum of 4 hours. If the defendant did not understand the difference between right and wrong, it may not be considered appropriate to treat such a person as culpable. Wendt says those under 14 should not necessarily be incarcerated, but should be punished by being barred from specific places or people, or be registered to a youth worker whom they need to check in with on a regular basis. [citation needed], Some jurisdictions do not have a set fixed minimum age, but leave discretion to prosecutors to argue or the judges to rule on whether the child or adolescent ("juvenile") defendant understood that what was being done was wrong. Hence, children are deemed incapable of committing some sexual or other acts requiring abilities of a more mature quality. Behavior of a more antisocial nature can be stigmatized in a more positive way to show society's disapproval through the use of the word criminal. In 2007 the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) said it was not. First-time criminals under the age of 18 doing petty crimes usually get no punishment and get released with only a warning. In Hong Kong, the minimum age is 10. [11] Hence, no matter what the child may have done, there cannot be a criminal prosecution. Children have not had experience of life, nor do they have the same mental and intellectual capacities as adults. The terminology regarding such a defense varies by jurisdiction and sphere. "Implicit theories of criminal responsibility: Decision making and the insanity defense." Usually persons aged 10–11 will only be imprisoned in very serious cases, such as murder.

On the other hand, the Court may choose to apply juvenile measures for perpetrators above the age of 17 but below the age of 18, if "the circumstances of the case and the mental state of development of the perpetrator, his characteristics and personal situation warrant it." However, although no criminal liability is inferred, other aspects of law may be applied.

If convicted in a juvenile court, the offender is found "responsible" for their actions as opposed to "guilty" of a criminal offense. 18 is the standard age of criminal liability in Peru. The woman was allegedly raped in this park in Mülheim, Germany. The age of criminal responsibility in Europe refers to the age below which an individual is considered to be unsuitable for being held accountable for their criminal offence, also known as "defense of infancy" in the US. 12 in Scotland. Offenders aged 14 to 18 years qualify for reduction of sentence under section 18 of the Criminal Code. Sometimes, in some jurisdictions (such as the United States of America), a minor may be tried as an adult. [Penal Code, Article 82. Indeed, given the different speeds at which people may develop both physically and intellectually, any form of explicit age limit may be arbitrary and irrational.

The "age of criminal responsibility" is used by most European countries, the UK, Australia, New Zealand and other Commonwealth of Nations countries. A child under the age of seven was presumed incapable of committing a crime. Alternatively, the lack of real fault in the offender can be recognized by rulings that dispense mitigated criminal sentences or address more practical matters of parental responsibility by adjusting the rights of parents to unsupervised custody, or by separate criminal proceedings against the parents for breach of their duties as parents.

incapable of wrong) and exclude liability for all acts and omissions that would otherwise have been criminal up to a specified age. [Note: unofficial translation.

Other measures applied for ages 12–13. [citation needed], The policy of treating minors as incapable of committing crimes does not necessarily reflect modern sensibilities. If the police notices someone under the age of 15 doing criminal acts, the police can decide to have obligatory meetings with the teen/child and the parents. In legal terms, it is referred to as a defence/defense of infancy, which is a form of defense known as an excuse so that defendants falling within the definition of an "infant" are excluded from criminal liability for their actions, if at the relevant time, they had not reached an age of criminal responsibility. However, minors from 16–17 years old at the moment of the crime may be subject to 6 to 10 years in prison in case of homicide, feminicide, extortion, vandalism, rape or being member of a criminal gang. All five suspects are Bulgarian, police added. Even though legal procedures and punishment are different for offenders who are under 18, all offenders who are 12 or older may be sentenced to as much as 15 years of incarceration. Currently, the only other European countries with a minimum age of criminal responsibility lower than 14 are France (13 years of age), Poland (13 years of age), Turkey (12 years of age), the Netherlands (12 years of age) and Switzerland (ten years of age).

Hence, some states have a policy of doli incapax (i.e.

The age of criminal responsibility in England and Wales is 10 years old. The most common age of criminal responsibility in Europe is 14. The prosecution could overcome the presumption by proving that the child understood what they were doing and it was wrong.

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[citation needed], As the treaty parties of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court could not agree on a minimum age for criminal responsibility, they chose to solve the question procedurally and excluded the jurisdiction of the Court for persons under eighteen years. "The origins of the right and wrong test of criminal responsibility and its subsequent development in the United States: An historical survey." Minors between 14 and 16 years old are responsible only for certain crimes, according to article 27 of the Belarusian Criminal Code. In the criminal law, each state will consider the nature of its own society and the available evidence of the age at which antisocial behaviors begins to manifest itself. 54 (1966): 1227. This can only happen if the criminal is under the age of 18.

For example, in Nordic countries, an offense by a person under 15 years of age is considered mostly a symptom of problems in child's development. 14 for all crimes under the general provisions of the Criminal Code; special provisions may apply for some crimes up to the age 21. Grunnvilkår for straffansvar - Lovdata", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Age_of_criminal_responsibility_in_Europe&oldid=974853283, CS1 Norwegian Bokmål-language sources (nb), Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 25 August 2020, at 11:50. [Criminal Code, Article 19; Lei Tutelar Educativa 1999 (Guardianship and Education Law), Articles 1 and 4], unsuitable for being held accountable for their criminal offence, "Minimum Ages of Criminal Responsibility in Europe | CRIN", s. 50 Children and Young Persons Act 1933, Criminal Justice and Licensing (Scotland) Act 2010, http://www.youthpolicy.org/wp-content/uploads/library/1999_Criminal_Code_Andorra_Cat.pdf, "Justice ministry rejects UNICEF criticism of new criminal code provisions on youthful offenders", http://www.citizensinformation.ie/en/justice/children_and_young_offenders/children_and_the_criminal_justice_system_in_ireland.html, http://www.hidaa.gov.al/english/laws/penal%20code.pdf, https://www.ris.bka.gv.at/GeltendeFassung.wxe?Abfrage=Bundesnormen&Gesetzesnummer=10002825, http://www.iuscomp.org/gla/statutes/StGB.htm#19, "Lov om straff (straffeloven) - Kapittel 3. Minimum age of criminal responsibility is 12. At the state level, 33 states set no minimum age of criminal responsibility. ]", "Minimum Ages of Criminal Responsibility in Europe | CRIN", "Rige Ley donde se reduce la edad de imputabilidad de los menores", "Bolivia – Edad de responsabilidad penal ordinaria es desde los 18 años – JORNADA", Estatuto da Criança e do Adolescente (pt), "Progress of Nations 1997 Special Protections – Progress and Disparity", "EL NUEVO SISTEMA DE JUSTICIA PENAL PARA ADOLESCENTES", "Ministro de Justicia descarta rebaja en edad de responsabilidad penal adolescente", "La mayoría de los países de América latina ya tiene un régimen penal juvenil", "Klaus podpisem stvrdil trestní odpovědnost i legální sex od 15 let", "Adolescentes infractores, en la mira de Código Penal", "Minimum Ages of Criminal Responsibility in Africa | CRIN", "Justice ministry rejects UNICEF criticism of new criminal code provisions on youthful offenders", "Iran Human Rights Documentation Center – Criminal Responsibility of Children in the Islamic Republic of Iran's New Penal Code", "Iran urged to increase age of criminal responsibility for children", "Children and the criminal justice system", "UNICEF Malaysia – Child Protection – Justice for Children", "Minimum Ages of Criminal Responsibility in Asia", "Decreto por el que se expide la Ley Nacional del Sistema Integral de Justicia Penal para Adolescentes (art. The government has said it had no plans to raise the age of criminal responsibility. The two males ran away, police said, but were found a short time later with three others -- who are now all being investigated. Currently, minors under the age of 14 do not bear any criminal responsibility in China. Ages of criminal responsibility by country. In fact, capacity was a necessary element of the state's case. "Persons can be held criminally responsible for all offences committed after they have reached the age of 16, and for intentional killing from the age of 13, and for other specifically named offences from the age of 14. After reaching the initial age, there may be levels of responsibility dictated by age and the type of offense committed. Three 14-year-old boys and two 12-year-old boys are being investigated after locals found a woman surrounded by two males in Mülheim, near Cologne, Essen Police said in a statement.

A young adult between 18 and 21 years may still be sentenced by juvenile justice if considered mentally immature.

[13][14] In England and Wales and Northern Ireland the age of responsibility is 10 years, and in the Netherlands and Canada the age of responsibility is 12 years. Children's Attitudes Towards the Minimum Age of Criminal Responsibility", "Youth justice: Raising the age of criminal responsibility", "The Age of Criminal Responsibility (Scotland) Act 2019 (Commencement No. England, Wales and Northern Ireland has the lowest age of criminal responsibility in Europe, which currently stands at 10 years old. Is the principle of the criminal responsibility of minors based on classical legal reasoning (imputability/guilt) or is it based more on a criminological concept of “criminal capacity"? If they choose to detain them at a police station, they can be detained for a maximum of 4 hours. If the defendant did not understand the difference between right and wrong, it may not be considered appropriate to treat such a person as culpable. Wendt says those under 14 should not necessarily be incarcerated, but should be punished by being barred from specific places or people, or be registered to a youth worker whom they need to check in with on a regular basis. [citation needed], Some jurisdictions do not have a set fixed minimum age, but leave discretion to prosecutors to argue or the judges to rule on whether the child or adolescent ("juvenile") defendant understood that what was being done was wrong. Hence, children are deemed incapable of committing some sexual or other acts requiring abilities of a more mature quality. Behavior of a more antisocial nature can be stigmatized in a more positive way to show society's disapproval through the use of the word criminal. In 2007 the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) said it was not. First-time criminals under the age of 18 doing petty crimes usually get no punishment and get released with only a warning. In Hong Kong, the minimum age is 10. [11] Hence, no matter what the child may have done, there cannot be a criminal prosecution. Children have not had experience of life, nor do they have the same mental and intellectual capacities as adults. The terminology regarding such a defense varies by jurisdiction and sphere. "Implicit theories of criminal responsibility: Decision making and the insanity defense." Usually persons aged 10–11 will only be imprisoned in very serious cases, such as murder.

On the other hand, the Court may choose to apply juvenile measures for perpetrators above the age of 17 but below the age of 18, if "the circumstances of the case and the mental state of development of the perpetrator, his characteristics and personal situation warrant it." However, although no criminal liability is inferred, other aspects of law may be applied.

If convicted in a juvenile court, the offender is found "responsible" for their actions as opposed to "guilty" of a criminal offense. 18 is the standard age of criminal liability in Peru. The woman was allegedly raped in this park in Mülheim, Germany. The age of criminal responsibility in Europe refers to the age below which an individual is considered to be unsuitable for being held accountable for their criminal offence, also known as "defense of infancy" in the US. 12 in Scotland. Offenders aged 14 to 18 years qualify for reduction of sentence under section 18 of the Criminal Code. Sometimes, in some jurisdictions (such as the United States of America), a minor may be tried as an adult. [Penal Code, Article 82. Indeed, given the different speeds at which people may develop both physically and intellectually, any form of explicit age limit may be arbitrary and irrational.

The "age of criminal responsibility" is used by most European countries, the UK, Australia, New Zealand and other Commonwealth of Nations countries. A child under the age of seven was presumed incapable of committing a crime. Alternatively, the lack of real fault in the offender can be recognized by rulings that dispense mitigated criminal sentences or address more practical matters of parental responsibility by adjusting the rights of parents to unsupervised custody, or by separate criminal proceedings against the parents for breach of their duties as parents.

incapable of wrong) and exclude liability for all acts and omissions that would otherwise have been criminal up to a specified age. [Note: unofficial translation.

Other measures applied for ages 12–13. [citation needed], The policy of treating minors as incapable of committing crimes does not necessarily reflect modern sensibilities. If the police notices someone under the age of 15 doing criminal acts, the police can decide to have obligatory meetings with the teen/child and the parents. In legal terms, it is referred to as a defence/defense of infancy, which is a form of defense known as an excuse so that defendants falling within the definition of an "infant" are excluded from criminal liability for their actions, if at the relevant time, they had not reached an age of criminal responsibility. However, minors from 16–17 years old at the moment of the crime may be subject to 6 to 10 years in prison in case of homicide, feminicide, extortion, vandalism, rape or being member of a criminal gang. All five suspects are Bulgarian, police added. Even though legal procedures and punishment are different for offenders who are under 18, all offenders who are 12 or older may be sentenced to as much as 15 years of incarceration. Currently, the only other European countries with a minimum age of criminal responsibility lower than 14 are France (13 years of age), Poland (13 years of age), Turkey (12 years of age), the Netherlands (12 years of age) and Switzerland (ten years of age).

Hence, some states have a policy of doli incapax (i.e.

The age of criminal responsibility in England and Wales is 10 years old. The most common age of criminal responsibility in Europe is 14. The prosecution could overcome the presumption by proving that the child understood what they were doing and it was wrong.

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