The low-GHG case is based on a steadily escalating carbon tax beginning at $25/metric ton of CO2e in 2013 and escalating at 5 percent per year, reaching $152/metric ton in 2050. 7, Natural Gas - LNG & CNG What it is: Natural gas is a mixture of hydrocarbons - mainly methane (CH4). Accessed December 28, 2011.

Available at

This legislation mandated the consumption of 35 billion gallons of ethanol-equivalent3 biofuel and 1 billion gallons of biodiesel (about 24.3 billion gge/yr based on energy content) by 2022.

on how the fuels are produced. The DOE has detailed safety analysis and operating recommendations for natural gas filling stations. Examples of this include photoelectrochemical hydrogen production and biofuels from algae. Available at Share; Facebook; Twitter; LinkedIn; Email; The internal combustion engine, fuelled by petrol or diesel, has dominated the automotive landscape for more than 100 years. 19, Conclusions Our dependence on energy is central to our economy and way of life.

2011c. 4, Environmental Characteristics: Emissions from M-85 vehicles are slightly lower than in gasoline powered vehicles.

The North American Carbon Storage Atlas. Oil and natural gas sector: New source performance standards and national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants reviews. 2.Has a higher octane numb er and burns more efficiently. Environmental Characteristics: Natural gas has low CO emissions, virtually no PM (particulate matter) reduced volatile organic emissions, and compounds.

Many of them are also animated. 2. Fuel prices beyond 2035 were estimated by the committee. The U.S. Department of Energy’s Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center lists 975 public CNG refueling stations as of January 9, 2012 (DOE-EERE, 2012a).

As with methanol, E-85 is the primary ethanol alternative fuel. GM Announces Hydrogen Infrastructure Pilot Project in Hawaii. Pacala, J.J. Winebrake, W.L.

Available at Therefore, the estimated investment required was $5 billion for a 2020 facility, $4 billion for a 2035 facility, and $3 billion for a 2050 facility. The AEO 2011 estimated GHG emissions from coal combustion to be 0.9552 kg CO2e/kWh.18 For coal, the upstream emissions embedded in the GREET model are 3.74 kg CO2e/GJ. In addition to an overview of alternative aviation fuel trends, this report summarizes the results of a public workshop sponsored by EERE’s Bioenergy Technologies Office in Macon, Georgia, from September 14‒15, 2016. The costs for biomass and coal are nearly twice what they were in the 2008 study. : Public Service Commission of Wisconsin. The NRC report Transitions to Alternative Transportation Technologies—A Focus on Hydrogen (NRC, 2008) contains an analysis of the technical needs, costs, petroleum savings and GHG emission savings possible by moving towards a hydrogen-fuel infrastructure. The biorefinery would cost between $360 million and $540 million to build.

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